Today in History - Deaths - December 15th

← Nov Jan → December

Deaths | Historical Events | Famous Birthdays | Deaths | Weddings | Divorces

Hop to:
Notable Deaths on December 15th

2013Joan Fontaine, British-American actress, dies of natural causes at 96

1675Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter (Love Letter), dies at 43

1890Sitting Bull, Hunkpapa-Sioux chief (Little Big Horn), killed by US Police aged 58 or 59

1966Walt Disney, animator, dies at 65, put in suspended animation

December 15th Deaths
Date Event
1025
Basilius II, the Bulgarendoder, Byzantine emperor (976-1025), dies 
1072
Alp Arslan, Turkish sultan in Persia (b. 1029) 
1230
Ottokar I, king of Bohemia (1197-1230), dies 
1263
King Haakon IV of Norway (b. 1204) 
1515
Alfonso de Albuquerque, viceroy of Portuguese Indies, dies 
1576
Joachim Hopperus, [Hoppers], Frisian lawyer/politician, dies at 53 
1598
Philip van Marnix, Flemish ruler of St Aldegonde/poet, dies at 58 
1621
Charles d'albert duke of Luynes/PM of France, dies at 43 
1626
Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor/painter, dies at about 70 
1673
Margaret Cavendish, English writer (b. 1623) 
1675
Jan Vermeer, Dutch painter (Love Letter), dies at 43 
1683
Izaak Walton, English writer (b. 1593) 
1688
Gaspar Fagel, lawyer/Neth grand pensionary (1672-88), dies at 54 
1699
Henrik A van Reede tot Drakenstein, Dutch botanist, dies at about 63 
1712
Sidney 1st earl of Godolphine, English minister of Finance, dies at 67 
1715
George Hickes, English linguist (Old German Philology), dies at 73 
1753
Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, English architect (b. 1694) 
1779
Manuel Jeronimo Romero de Avila, composer, dies at 62 
1792
Joseph Martin Kraus, composer, dies at 36 
1816
Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowitz, composer, dies at 44 
1817
Maria Walewska [Leszczinska], lover of emperor Napoleon I, dies 
1822
Ferenc Verseghy, composer, dies at 65 
1826
William Browser, revolting slave, executed in NYC 
1831
Paul R Cantzlaar, gov of Saba/Curacao/Dutch-West Indies, dies at 60 
1839
Matthijs I van Bree, Flemish court-painter, dies at 66 
1855
Jacques Charles François Sturm, French mathematician (b. 1803) 
1861
Gualtiero Sanelli, composer, dies at 45 
1880
Carlo Boncompagni di Mombello, Ital minister of Justice, dies at 76 
1889
Ferdinand II A F A, King of Portugal, dies at 73 
1890
Sitting Bull, Hunkpapa-Sioux chief (Little Big Horn), killed by US Police aged 58 or 59 
1892
Charles Balmer, composer, dies at 75 
1896
John GR Acquoy, Dutch theologist/church historian, dies at 67 
1901
Elias Alvares Lobo, composer, dies at 67 
1909
Francisco Tarrega y Eixea, composer, dies at 57 
1909
Francisco Tárrega, Sideways 
1927
Romaine Fielding, The Rattlesnake 
1930
Diane Ellis, Laughter 
1934
Maggis Lena Walker, 1st US (black) woman to head a bank, dies at 69 
1935
Henry Krauss, Poil de carotte 
1938
Armando Novello, Toto's Troubles 
1939
Tom McKibbin, cricketer (5 Tests for Aust 1895-1898, 17 wkts), dies 
1940
William H. Terhune, Babes in Toyland 
1942
William T. Horne, Half a Hero 
1943
Thomas W "Fats" Waller, jazz pianist (Hot Chocolate), dies at 39 in KC Missouri 
1943
Fats Waller, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button 
1943
Emilie Giesrau, Aufruhr im Damenstift 
1944
Glenn Miller, US band leader/jazz composer, dies at 40 
1944
Gérard Bourgeois, Terror 
1944
William Grimes, Camille 
1944
Glenn Miller, The Aviator 
1945
Karl Haacker, Covered Tracks 
1945
Arnold Lucy, All Quiet on the Western Front 
1946
Conrad Haebler, historian (Hundert Kalenderinkunabeln), dies at 89 
1946
Gordon Frederic Norton, composer, dies at 77 
1946
A. Bromley Davenport, Jamaica Inn 
1946
Bill Madsen, The Pinch Singer 
1946
Frederick Norton, Chu-Chin-Chow 
1947
Arthur Machen, Welsh author (b. 1863) 
1947
Leo Samwell, Thundering Fleas 
1948
Arthur Wanzer, The Gossipy Plumber 
1949
Aladár Sarkadi, A Papagály 
1949
A. Carle Palm, The Drums of Jeopardy 
1950
Robert Muller-Hartmann, composer, dies at 66 
1950
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian political leader, Iron Man of India (b. 1875) 
1950
Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Congress Session in Bombay 
1950
Josep Maria Folch i Torres, Les aventures d'en Massagran IV 
1951
Eric Drummond, 1st sec-gen League of Nations (1919-33), dies at 75 
1951
María Grever, Casino 
1952
Ernest Florman, Akrobat med otur 
1953
Kishio Hirao, composer, dies at 46 
1953
Ed Barrow, The Pride of the Yankees 
1953
Cecil Trouncer, Pygmalion 
1954
José Martínez de la Vega, The Sign of Death 
1955
Dorothy Bernard, The Girl and Her Trust 
1957
Emily Barrye, Fast Fightin' 
1957
Alfonso Bedoya, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre 
1957
Mariano Asquerino, Eugenia de Montijo 
1958
Wolfgang Ernst Pauli, Austrian-born American physicist, Nobel laureate (b. 1900) 
1958
Ottmar Ostermayr, Die Geierwally 
1958
Josua Bengtson, Gud fader och tattaren 
1959
Adolf Bouwmeester, De vier mullers 
1959
James Eagles, Sunset Range 
1960
Véra Clouzot, Diabolique 
1961
William "Dummy" Hoy, professional baseball player, dies at 99 
1961
Warren Burke, Road House 
1961
Margaret Armstrong, Annie Oakley 
1962
Charles Laughton, English actor (Hunchback of Notre Dame), dies at 63 
1963
Rikidôzan, Yagate aozora 
1964
Allen Q. Thompson, The Negro Soldier 
1966
Walt Disney, animator, dies at 65, put in suspended animation 
1968
Jess Willard, Heavyweight boxing champ (1915-19), dies at 86 
1968
Antonio Barrette, Canadian politician, premier of Quebec (b. 1899) 
1971
Paul Pierre Lévy, French mathematician (b. 1886) 
1972
Edward Earle, actor (Charlie Chan-Meeting at Midnight), dies at 90 
1972
Herbert Eimert, German composer (Glockenspiel), dies at 75 
1973
Orest Alexandrovich Evlahkov, composer, dies at 61 
1974
Erich Walter Sternberg, composer, dies at 83 
1974
Anatole Litvak, Ukrainian-born screenwriter and film producer (b. 1902) 
1975
Mukhtar Ashrafi, composer, dies at 63 
1977
Wilfred Kitching, the 7th General of The Salvation Army (b. 1893) 
1977
Sidney Marshall, The Towering Inferno 
1978
Chill Wills, actor (Frontier Circus, Rounders), dies at 75 
1978
Chill Wills, Giant 
1979
Bern Hoffman, actor (Major Dell Conway), dies at 66 
1979
Bern Hoffman, Li'l Abner 
1979
Smacka Fitzgibbon, Episode dated 26 March 1975 
1979
Pavel Massalsky, Ivan the Terrible, Part II 
1980
Jacqueline Jacoupy, Premier de cordée 
1980
Joe Twerp, In Old Chicago 
1981
Mikhail Zharov, Ivan the Terrible, Part I 
1981
Irving Birnbaum, The Mole People 
1982
Bert Freeman, The Adventures of Smilin' Jack 
1983
Eden Hartford, Invisible Invaders 
1983
David Markham, Gandhi 
1984
Avon Long, actor (Roots: Next Generation), dies at 74 
1984
Jan Peerce, [Perelmuth], operatic tenor, dies at 80 following a stroke 
1984
Lennard Pearce, English actor (b. 1915) 
1984
Frank Spedding, Canadian Chemist whose uranium extraction process helped make possible the first atomic bomb, dies at 82 
1984
Gilbert Houcke, The Artist in the Circus Dome: Clueless 
1984
Eddie Beal, Joe Adams Presents 
1984
Lennard Pearce, Face of Darkness 
1984
Jan Peerce, Hymn of the Nations 
1985
Endel Ani, Kevade 
1985
Vladimír Ptácek, Larks on a String 
1985
Herb Crisler, The Vanishing Prairie 
1985
Mikhail Shneiderov, Moscow Strikes Back 
1985
Albert Rudling, Souvenirs from Sweden 
1985
Arthur Mosquiera, When You're in Love 
1985
Alma Felix, Midnight Cowboy 
1986
David James, Scott of the Antarctic 
1986
John Zaremba, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers 
1986
J.W. King, These Bases Are Loaded 
1986
Frank Behrens, Cavender Is Coming 
1986
Serge Lifar, Serge Lifar Musagète 
1987
Bohumil Ríha, Divoký koník Ryn 
1987
Jonathan Kidd, The 7th Commandment 
1987
Ray Malavasi, Birthday Party/Ghostbreaker 
1987
Robert Chapin, Isle of Missing Men 
1988
Edgar Vetter, Romeo and Juliet 
1988
Jean Sacha, One Bullet Is Enough 
1988
Jack Griffin, Requiem for a Falling Star 
1988
Peter Dohanos, Diary of a Mad Housewife 
1988
Casey MacGregor, Triggers in Leash 
1988
Muriel Martin-Harvey, The Answer 
1988
István Tömpe, Hello, Vera 
1989
Arnold Moss, actor (Gambit), dies at 79 
1989
Edward Underdown, English actor (b. 1908) 
1989
Arnold Moss, Viva Zapata! 
1989
Oliver Hartwell, A Man Called Peter 
1989
Ben Barzman, The Fall of the Roman Empire 
1989
Sadie Ornitz, Legacy of the Hollywood Blacklist 
1989
Edward Underdown, Thunderball 
1990
Betty Warren actress (Passport to Pimlico), dies 
1990
Jean Paige, actress (Capt Blood, Black Beauty), dies 
1990
Betty Warren, Passport to Pimlico 
1990
Mariusz Gorczynski, Westerplatte 
1990
Armand Hammer, The Visit 
1990
Ed Parker, Curse of the Pink Panther 
1990
Jean Paige, Black Beauty 
1991
Horatio Luro, US horse trainer (Northern Dancer), dies at 90 
1991
Ray Smith, British actor (And Then You Die), dies at 55 
1991
James Whitworth, The Hills Have Eyes 
1991
Ray Smith, Rogue Male 
1992
Wilbert Bradley, Code of Silence 
1992
Sven Delblanc, Fjortonde delen 
1992
Liam O'Leary, Portrait of Dublin 
1992
Yolande Laffon, Mayerling 
1992
William Ware Theiss, Harold and Maude 
1992
Hermann Stövesand, Bear Ye One Another's Burden 
1992
Stojan Decermic, I Even Met Happy Gypsies 
1992
Otto Lington, Tretten Aar 
1992
Jim Musick, Hold 'Em Jail 
1993
Kakuei Tanaka, PM of Japan (1972-74), dies 
1993
Gene Neighbors, The Blue Lamp 
1993
Sol Barzman, The Magic Fluke 
1994
Hans de Jong, musician/conductor (Amsterdams Vrouwenkoor), dies at 86 
1994
Harry Tobias, songwriter, dies at 99 
1994
Henry Phelps Brown, historian/economist, dies at 88 
1994
Mollie Doreen Phillips, Brit figure skater (Eur-bronze-33), dies at 87 
1994
Harry Tobias, Amélie 
1994
Ruth Luoma-Aho, Light Melody 
1994
Zinaida Vorkul, Andrei Rublev 
1995
James Geoffrey Cutcliffe Hepburn, tap-dancer/socialist, dies at 88 
1995
Manuel Gutierrez Mellado, PM of Defense of Spain (1977-81), dies at 83 
1995
Gabriel Trupin, Madonna: Truth or Dare 
1995
Alan Smiler, Rocket Attack U.S.A. 
1995
Leevi Linko, The Unknown Soldier 
1995
Varela Silva, A Filha 
1995
Susan Sharkey, Enemies 
1996
Gerald Moverley, priest, dies at 74 
1996
Guiseppe Dossetti, politician/priest, dies at 83 
1996
Laurens jan van der Post, explorer/conservationist, dies at 90 
1996
Harry Kemelman, The Nine Mile Walk 
1996
Charlotte Manson, Elegy 
1996
Laurens van der Post, Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence 
1996
Frances Steens, Lucy the Babysitter 
1996
Roy Irving, Odd Man Out 
1996
Tristan Keuris, Oeroeg 
1997
Lillian Disney, widow of Walt Disney, dies at 98 
1997
Pananayiotis Taki Vatikiotis, middle east scholar, dies at 69 
1997
Harriett Eells, One-Way Ticket 
1997
Borislav Mihajlovic-Mihiz, The Dervish and Death 
1997
Edward Walsh, Another 48 Hrs. 
1997
Bozidar Miletic, Moment 
1997
Jaromír Borek, The Inheritors 
1998
Friedrich Jahn, Friedrich Jahn 
1998
Dean Peters, WCW/NWO World War 3 
1998
Vera Jovanovic, Innocence Unprotected 
1998
Georgia Dell, Child's Play 
1998
Richard Spero, The Stunt Man 
1999
Al Norman, King of Jazz 
1999
Paridon von Horn, The Old Clock at Ronneberga 
1999
Eddie Kazak, 1949 MLB All-Star Game 
1999
Rune Andréasson, Skattkartan 
1999
Irene Windust, The Five-Forty-Eight 
2000
Valerio Longoria Sr., Selena 
2000
Jacques Goddet, Les coulisses de l'exploit 
2000
Trevor Adams, The Wedding Party 
2000
Jose Gonzales-Gonzales, The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear 
2000
Inigo Gallo, Theo Against the Rest of the World 
2001
Russ Haas, American professional wrestler (b. 1974) 
2001
Rufus Thomas, American musician (b. 1917) 
2001
Christopher Hitchens, author and journaist (Vanity Fair, New Statesman) dies of oesophageal cancer aged 62. 
2001
Rufus Thomas, Mystery Train 
2001
Wilkie Cooper, Jason and the Argonauts 
2001
Krzysztof Pankiewicz, Przeprowadzka 
2001
Leopold Borkowski, The Search 
2001
John Guedel, People Are Funny 
2001
Bianca Butthole, Betty Blowtorch: And Her Amazing True Life Adventures 
2002
Tadeusz Kamberski, Pierwsza milosc 
2002
Dick Stuart, Frank Robinson vs. Dick Stuart 
2002
Eino S. Repo, Suuri vaalikeskustelu 
2002
Arthur Jeph Parker, Silverado 
2002
Ole Søgaard, We Are All Demons 
2003
George Fisher, American political cartoonist (b. 1923) 
2003
Keith Magnuson, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1947) 
2003
Sue Tilling, Rhythm & Blues 
2003
Keith Magnuson, Bobby Orr 
2003
Edward Montagne, The Reluctant Astronaut 
2003
Nikolay Pogodin, The Girls 
2003
Jack Ragotzy, Viva Smart 
2003
Don Reed, The Fortune Cookie 
2003
Monty McFarlane, Curse of Smoky Ridge 
2003
Arto Rautvuori, Uuno Turhapuro 
2004
Pauline Gore, mother of Al Gore (b. 1912) 
2004
Carlos Lucas, The Day of the Beast 
2005
Heinrich Gross, Austrian physician (b. 1914) 
2005
Stan Leonard, Canadian golfer (b. 1915) 
2005
William Proxmire, U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (b. 1915) 
2005
Darrell Russell, American football player (b. 1976) 
2005
Ivana Kislinger, La noche de Venus 
2005
Charles Heard, Pistol Whipped 
2005
Giuseppe Patroni Griffi, Metti, una sera a cena 
2005
James Ingo Freed, Bauhaus in America 
2005
Heinrich Gross,  
2005
Maurice Beresford, Wharram Percy 
2005
Beach Dickerson, Creature from the Haunted Sea 
2005
Walter Haut, Where Are All the UFO's? 
2006
Clay Regazzoni, Swiss Formula One driver (b. 1939) 
2006
Mary Stolz, The Baby-Blue Expression 
2006
Henny Alma, A Bridge Too Far 
2006
Svein Wickstrøm, Himmelen kan vente 
2006
Angelyn Orr, Blondie's Lucky Day 
2006
Michael Colicchio, Brown Eye, Evil Eye 
2006
Antony Genov, Aszparuh 
2006
Allan Stone, Who the #$&% Is Jackson Pollock? 
2006
Shaila Rubin, Life Is Beautiful 
2006
Clay Regazzoni, O Fabuloso Fittipaldi 
2007
John Berg (actor), American actor (b. 1949) 
2007
Julia Carson, U.S. Congresswoman from Indiana (b. 1938) 
2007
Nøste Schwab, Tante Pose 
2007
Sweet Louie, The Black Connection 
2007
Ace Vergel, Anak ng cabron 
2007
Karl Heinz Deickert, Feuerwanzen küß ich nicht 
2007
Roger Marshutz, Remembering Elvis 
2007
Diane Middlebrook, Sylvia Plath 
2007
St. Clair Bourne, John Henrik Clarke: A Great and Mighty Walk 
2007
Ryan Gracie, Renzo Gracie: Legacy 
2007
Giuseppe Rinaldi, Duck, You Sucker 
2007
Zane Bond, Pesticide 
2007
John Berg, Star Trek: Nemesis 
2007
Matjaz Klopcic, Fear 
2008
León Febres Cordero, Ecuador's former President (b. 1931) 
2008
Davy Graham, Bobby 
2008
Carl Bengs, The Green Slime 
2008
David Lieber, Prophets: Soul Catchers 
2008
Vitaliy Ilin, Priklyucheniya printsa Florizelya 
2008
Wanda Koczeska, Innocent Sorcerers 
2008
Christopher Webb, Spiral 
2008
Anne-Cath Vestly, Guro og Erle 
2008
Henry Shaffer, The Exorcist III 
2008
Georg-Michael Wagner, Startverbot 
2008
Hank Stohl, Capricorn One 
2009
Oral Roberts, American television evangelist and author (b. 1918) 
2009
Frank Brill, A Man Called Horse 
2009
Herbert Spiegel, RFK Must Die: The Assassination of Bobby Kennedy 
2009
Oral Roberts, Love Is 
2009
Phil Bowles, Touch of Evil 
2009
C.D.B. Bryan, Friendly Fire 
2009
Robert Turturice, Batman & Robin 
2009
Charlie Hayward, The Giving Tree 
2009
Guenter Wolfbauer, Libero 
2010
Blake Edwards, American film director (b. 1922) 
2010
Bob Feller, American baseball player (b. 1918) 
2010
Eugene Victor Wolfenstein, American political scientist (b. 1940) 
2010
Hilde Rossel Majdan, Der Rosenkavalier 
2010
Domini Blythe, The Trotsky 
2010
Blake Edwards, The Party 
2010
Barbara Mills, Gabriella, Gabriella 
2010
Rene Farell, Werkbeispiele 
2010
Richard Young, Not My Life 
2010
Silvia Koller, Regular Guys 
2010
Günther Grabbert, Die Bauernhochzeit 
2010
Peter O. Chotjewitz, Der Hut oder Mondo Novo 
2010
Rusty McNeil, The Little Patriot 
2010
Jeanette Briggs, The Incredibly Strange Creatures Who Stopped Living and Became Mixed-Up Zombies!!? 
2010
Ensio Itkonen, Episode #1.10 
2010
Bob Feller, Signs of the Time 
2010
Jean Rollin, The Nude Vampire 
2010
Hans-Joachim Rauschenbach, Sportschau 
2011
Andy Carey, third baseman for 1950s New York Yankees, dies at 80 
2011
Yûko Asuka, Dan Oniroku shoujo shibari ezu 
2011
Sándor Técsy, Burn After Reading 
2011
Walter Giller, Drei Mann in einem Boot 
2011
Heidi Helen Davis, Montana 
2011
Bob Brookmeyer, This Is Gary McFarland 
2011
Andy Carey, Mantle 
2011
Kurt Rehfeld, Night of the Ghouls 
2011
Christopher Hitchens, Hell's Angel 
2011
Emmett L. Bennett Jr., A Very English Genius 
2011
Carmen Rupe, I Can Make You Love Me 
2011
Jeff Sanders, Tucker and Dale vs. Evil 
2011
Aksel Rasmussen, Carlo & Ester 
2011
Fleur Chandler, A Token Attempt 
2012
Olga Zubarry, Plaza de almas 
2012
Jeffrey Potter, The Crash of 1929 
2012
Carl Riha, Die Freuden der Frommen 
2012
Konstantin Vanshenkin, Tvoy brat Valentin 
2012
Fred Alexander, Days of Betrayal 
2012
Pavel Pípal, Horror Story 
2013
Joan Fontaine, British-American actress, dies of natural causes at 96 
2013
Joan Fontaine, Rebecca 
2013
Denis Gravereaux, It's Not Me, I Swear! 
2013
Harold Camping, Apocalypse Later: Harold Camping vs The End of the World 
2013
Faith Geer, Wall Street 
2013
Hubert Trimmel, Erlebnis in der Unterwelt - 100 Jahre Erforschung der Dachsteinhöhlen 
2013
Sandeep Acharya, Do Dilon Ke Khel Mein 
2014
Rebecca Brooks, Delivery: The Beast Within 
2014
Donald Metcalf, Australian Biography 
2014
Enzo Costa, +1 -1 
2014
Fausto Zapata, Díalogos políticos 
2014
Charles C. Thompson II, A Glimpse of Hell 
2014
Angie Daniels, Oneida County, NY: Girls 
2014
Chakri, Simha 
2014
Casey King, Dracula: Dead and Loving It 
2014
Bozena Mrowinska, Before Twilight 
2014
Michel Caen, Quelle horreur mon saigneur Dracula 
2014
Vladimir Ryabtzev, On svoyo poluchit 
2014
Booth Colman, General Hospital 
2014
Mustapha Maarof, Blood of Pontianak 
2015
Ken Pogue, Canadian actor, Died at 81 
2016
Bewitched and Hogan's Heroes TV star Bernard Fox dies aged 89 in Los Angeles 
2016
Former jockey Garrett Gomez dies, aged 44 
Keep in touch with us:
beta testing:

nothing here now


Today in history calendar
January 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
February 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
March 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
April 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
May 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
June 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
July 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
August 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
September 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
October 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
November 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
December 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31